بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ (In the name of Allāh, the Most Merciful, the Most Beneficent)
Romanization / Transliteration
Some Arabic letters or sounds can’t be written exactly into English, so transliteration (the direct representation of foreign letters using Latin symbols) or Romanization (the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script) is used to help the reader with pronunciation. Some letters will have diacritic marks on or before (e.g. ā, Ꜥa) .
There are well established systems for this purpose. There are also established standards of writing arabic words in English, but sometimes they can appear unintuitive.
This website tries to employ a common sense approach, often looking at common usage. As an example, صَلَاة can be written as Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt, and زكاة can be written Zakāh or Zakāt; both have the same arabic word structure and ending, but different endings have become more popular (Ṣalāh, and Zakāt).
You can read up on this subject here.
Some commonly used examples on this website
ا = ā (Pronounced aa)
ḥ – Tensely breathed h sound
ص = ṣ (A heavy s pronounced far back in the mouth with the mouth hollowed to produce a full sound)
ض = ḍ (A heavy d/dh pronounced far back in the mouth with the mouth hollowed to produce a full sound)
ط = ṭ (A heavy t pronounced far back in the mouth with the mouth hollowed to produce a full sound)
ظ = ẓ ( A heavy dh pronounced far back in the mouth with the mouth hollowed to produce a full sound)
ع = Ꜥ, Ꜥa, Ꜥi, Ꜥu (Pronounced from the throat)
و = ū (Pronounced oo)
ي = ī (Pronounced ee)
See White Thread Press Transliteration Key for a complete list.
Complimentary phrases are sometimes added, as a mark of respect, title, or prayer, to the end of the name. This is different to titles which precede the name (e.g. Ḥaḍrat).
In the case of the Final Messenger, Muḥammad صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ, the honorific is known as Durūd, and always to any occurence, regardless of whether the name is actually mentioned or not (e.g. The Holy Prophet صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ).
Some common examples
سبحانه وتعالىٰ (Subhanahu wa taꜤālā) May He be Glorified and Exalted – Applies ONLY to Allāh
صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (ṢallAllāhu Ꜥalayhi wa sallam) May Allāh send blessings and peace upon Him – Follows any mention of the Final Prophet, Muḥammad صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
عليه السلام (ꜤAlayhis Salām) May peace be upon him – Other Prophets, and high ranking Angels (e.g. Jibrīl)
رَضِيَ ٱللَّٰهُ عَنْهُ (radi Allāhu Ꜥanhu) May Allāh be pleased with him (عَنْهَا her / عَنْهُمَا her / عَنْهُمْ them) – Saḥābah (Companions of The Prophet صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ)
رَحْمَةُ الله عليه / رَحِمَهُ الله (RaḥmatUllahi Ꜥalayhi) May Allah’s mercy/blessing be upon him (عليها her / عليهم them) – Revered scholars (usually deceased, but can be used for living)
نور الله مرقده (nawwar Allāhu marqadahu) May Allãh Enlighten his Grave – The deceased
مدظله العالی (maddaẓillah ul- Ꜥālī) May Allāh extend his shadow / May he live long – Revered (living) scholars
حفظہ اللہ (ḥafiẓahUllāhu) May Allāh protect him – Revered (living) scholars
دَامَت بَرَکاتُہُ (dāmat barakātuhu) – May Allāh continuously shower blessings upon him – Revered (living) scholars